Hospitals have for many years had emergency plans. Historically, little was done to incorporate them into regional or statewide planning. However, that changed in Virginia before the events of September 11, 2001. Events like the first New York City and Oklahoma City bombings highlighted the need to coordinate private sector health care with community emergency management activities. Virginia began building the public/private partnership between the hospital community and state agencies in late 1999 when representatives from VHHA, the Virginia Department of Health (VDH), the Virginia Department of Emergency Management (VDEM) and others met to discuss ways to promote better coordination of health care emergency management planning.